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An example would be the moonlight towers in Austin, Texas, where the elevator holds only one person and equipment for maintenance. The Glasgow Tower— an observation tower in Glasgow, Scotland— also makes use of two climbing elevators. Temporary climbing elevators are commonly used in the construction of new high-rise buildings to move materials and personnel before the building’s permanent elevator system is installed, at which point the climbing elevators are dismantled. The widespread availability of variable frequency AC drives has allowed AC motors to be used universally, bringing with it the advantages of the older motor-generator, DC-based systems, without the penalties in terms of efficiency and complexity. The older MG-based installations are gradually being replaced in older buildings due to their poor energy efficiency. Today, some machine room-less hydraulic elevators by Otis and ThyssenKrupp exist.

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  • Today 83.4 per cent of the population practices Eastern Orthodox Christianity, with the majority of these adhering to the national Georgian Orthodox Church.
  • This lever would allow some control over the energy supplied to the motor and so enabled the elevator to be accurately positioned — if the operator was sufficiently skilled.
  • RTT calculations establish an elevator system’s handling capacity by using a set of repeatable calculations which, for a given set of inputs, always produce the same answer.
  • Political tensions with Russia have contributed to the 2006 Russian embargo of Georgian wine, Russia claimed Georgia produced counterfeit wine.
  • The first screw-drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793, although there may have been an earlier design by Leonardo da Vinci.

Since 2004 the Georgian Railways have been undergoing a rolling programme of fleet-renewal and managerial restructuring which is aimed at making the service provided more efficient and comfortable for passengers. Infrastructural development has also been high on the agenda for the railways, with the key Tbilisi railway junction expected to undergo major reorganization in the near future. Additional projects also include the construction of the economically important Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, which was opened on 30 October 2017 and connects much of the Caucasus with Turkey by standard gauge railway.

The elevator algorithm has found an application in computer operating systems as an algorithm for scheduling hard disk requests. Modern elevators use more complex heuristic algorithms to decide which request to service next. In taller buildings with high traffic, such as the New York Marriott Marquis or the Burj Khalifa, the destination dispatch algorithm is used to group passengers going to similar floors, maximizing load by up to 25%. In some elevators, such as those in some hotels, certain floors are inaccessible unless one swipes a security card or enters a passcode.

The door is unlocked and opened by a machine sitting on the roof of the car, which also drives the doors that travel with the car. Door controls are provided to close immediately or reopen the doors, although the button to close them immediately is often disabled during normal operations, especially on more recent elevators. Objects in the path of the moving doors will either be detected by sensors or physically activate a switch that reopens the doors. Some elevators are configured to remain open at the floor until they are required to move again. Regulations often require doors to close after use to prevent smoke from entering the elevator shaft in event of fire.

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For buildings of much over seven floors, traction elevators must be employed instead. The mission and functions of the GDF are based on the Constitution of Georgia, Georgia’s Law on Defense and National Military Strategy, and international agreements to which Georgia is signatory. The biggest part, 72% of the military budget is allocated for maintaining defence forces readiness and potency development. After its independence from the Soviet Union, Georgia began to develop its own military industry.


On 1 October 2021, former President Mikheil Saakashvili was arrested on his return from exile. Saakashvili led the country from 2004 to 2013 but was later convicted in absentia on corruption charges and abuse of power, which he denied. In February 2021, Irakli Garibashvili became Prime Minister of Georgia, following the resignation of Prime Minister Giorgi Gakharia.

The weight of the counterweight is typically equal to the weight of the elevator cab plus 40–50% of the capacity of the elevator. The grooves in the drive sheave are specially designed to prevent the cables from slipping. “Traction” is provided to the ropes by the grip of the grooves in the sheave, thereby the name. As the ropes age and the traction grooves wear, some traction is lost and the ropes must be replaced and the sheave repaired or replaced. Sheave and rope wear may be significantly reduced by ensuring that all ropes have equal tension, thus sharing the load evenly. Rope tension equalization may be achieved using a rope tension gauge, and is a simple way to extend the lifetime of the sheaves and ropes.

In order for an elevator to be legal to carry passengers in some jurisdictions it must have a solid inner door. Freight elevators are typically larger and capable of carrying heavier loads than a passenger elevator, generally from 2,300 to 4,500 kg. Freight elevators may have manually operated doors, and often have rugged interior finishes to prevent damage while loading and unloading. Although hydraulic freight elevators exist, cable-borne elevators, or traction elevators are more energy efficient for the work of freight lifting, especially in taller buildings. In hydraulic elevator systems, emergency power will lower the elevators to the lowest landing and open the doors to allow passengers to exit. The doors then close after an adjustable time period and the car remains unusable until reset, usually by cycling the elevator main power switch.

The elevator can now only be moved by the corresponding ‘Access’ key switches, usually located at the highest and lowest landings. The access key switches will allow the car to move at reduced inspection speed with the hoistway door open. This speed can range from anywhere up to 60% of normal operating speed on most controllers, and is usually defined by local safety codes. The counterweight is located in the hoist-way and is carried along a separate railway system; as the car goes up, the counterweight goes down, and vice versa. This action is powered by the traction machine which is directed by the controller, typically a relay logic or computerized device that directs starting, acceleration, deceleration and stopping of the elevator cab.

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At the early stage of its appearance in the Latin world, it was not always written in the same transliteration, and the first consonant was being spelt with J as “Jorgia”. “Georgia” probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name’s origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that “Georgia” came from Greek γεωργός (“tiller of the land”). Alexander Mikaberidze wrote that these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān (“wolf”) as the root of the word.